Smogging Up The Future
Countries like China, India, and some places in the United States are environmentally retrogressing. The combinations of iodine, ozone, and oxides have a substantial effect on smog reactions (Hamilton 191). Inputs of iodine is released from animal residues, use of fertilizers and pesticides and into the atmosphere (Whitehead 273). This provides a damaging to the soil around and the soil used for cattle. The abundance of polluting human practices is the something that many are paying close eye to. The production of iodine in many nations has many questioning if the efforts of declaring war on pollution will be enough to slow the rate of the dwindling environment. In response, the beijing “government this year started to require about 15,000 of the country’s largest factories to publicly report emissions and wastewater discharges. And an official report in the spring on soil contamination, a subject previously deemed a state secret, was hailed by many observers” (Makinen, “China’s battle plans in war on air pollution under
And due to colliding efforts of redlining and gerrymandering many of these conditions are borne by helpless children financially restrained and generationally trapped. Dating back to the New Deal, more loans were allowed and distributed to non-minorities, enabling them to purchase a house. From then, many suburbs abided by racist policies that prevented non-whites from entering the neighborhood (Galyean et al, “Levittown”). With that, those neighborhoods were considered more profiting, “better,” and thereby more affluent. Prices in property went up and people were able to sell their houses to buy even better ones, another enabling stone for their progress. While whites had this help and access, other racial groups were unable to catch up with paying their bills, a result of lacking job opportunity, and as well an almost damned environment. Many generations still reside in the same neighborhoods involuntarily. With the help of political practices such as redlining and gerrymandering, not much change was encouraged neither allowed. With fluctuating district lines changing for voting power towards certain demographics, it was even more of crippling stone. Where “bad” neighborhoods residues, was where pollution thrived. The government was legally forcing them into heinous environments which became the impetus of their struggle to survive, much more than anyone else. Within in this past year, metro Detroit suffered approximately 2402 asthmas attacks and missed a total of 1,751 school days due to asthma (Radio Newsroom, Shaffer, “Detroit air pollution disproportionately affects
Not only that oil refinery in Michigan has been a leading cause towards increased rates of cancer in the residency around. Despite the emaciation of Detroit, there are adding factors that prevent the biologically development and vitality.
Pakistan has undergone severe smog conditions.
At its peak, Lahore’s levels of PM 2.5, the particles most damaging to health, were more than 30 times the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) safe limit. Environmentalists say air pollution is getting worse every year. According to WHO figures, in Pakistan during 2012, nearly 60,000 people died because of PM2.5 particles in the atmosphere (Islamabad, “Maybe the smog can bring us together’: toxic air chokes Pakistan and India”).
Currently PM levels are also increasing as we speak. This is due to the aforementioned pollution activity and regulatory policies placed or lack thereof (Casselman). There’s a mutual response to this by organizations such as Clean Air Task Force (CATF).
Almost 3 million kids go to schools within a half mile of oil and gas facilities—and face an elevated cancer risk because of it. “That’s the conservative estimate on the new edition of the Oil & Gas Threat Map by environmental nonprofits Clean Air Task Force and Earthworks”(Gans, “2.9 Million Kids Are at Risk From Oil and Gas Operations”). Data from the EPA’s National Emissions Inventory concluded that about 238 counties in the nation have elevated cancer risks associated with oil and gas facilities.
A probable solution to this would be to deter from oil use and production in areas that directly affect the people surrounding. Clean air is necessity in order to prevent the number of potential casualties and deaths that can arise. Another solution would be to minimize the amount of gas wells.
Currently, the U.S. is drilling half as many gas wells today as it was five years ago and producing a third more gas. This goes to show that the number of gas refineries and profitable activity is not necessarily positively correlated. By understanding this, it may incentivize companies to stop expanding in proximity to urban areas. The cost of drilling is also another expense that has risen. The current motivation for many companies drilling is Wall Street and the promise of monetary investment. Depending on such a factor can severely lack and leave an unlimiting bore in the amount of natural resources available. Consideration is crucial towards development and the “promising new oil” fields in ND may prompt those to act accordingly.
There has also been talk about creating a renewable resource in order to make a steady growth rate for crop population and thereby directly regulating production. If the resource stock falls, then labor productivity in the resource sector falls, the Ricardian production possibility frontier shifts in, and thus establishes a new temporary equilibrium with a lower harvest (Brander, Scott, “The Simple Economics of Easter Island: A Ricardo-Malthus Model of Renewable Resource Use. The American Economic Review”).
The Coalition for Clean Air organization plans on stifling this retrogression in more ways than one. A way how is by Educating school children about air quality monitoring is another key goal for CCA. The program was formulated to allow kids to build and use their own air quality monitoring devices at school, the organization brings the concept of air quality monitoring to the forefront and helps educate the next generation
There are a many alternative uses to curb pollution exhaustion. All in all, the alarm and worry for pollution effects and the effect of the solutions produced is a worry for many. The progress towards a cleaner and safer environment is unpredictable, just as the profitability of oil trends that determine it.
– Proper Format –
Brander, James A., and M. Scott Taylor. The Simple Economics of Easter Island: A
Ricardo-Malthus Model of Renewable Resource Use. The American Economic Review 88, no. 1 (1998): 119-138.
Gans, A. (2017, November 18). 2.9 Million Kids Are at Risk From Oil and Gas Operations.
Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/29-million-kids-are-risk-oil-and-gas-operations
Galyean, C., Brown, Z., Cohn, J. G., Stern, A. E., Covkin, S., Barnes, R. L., & Brackemyre, T.
(n.d.). Levittown. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://ushistoryscene.com/article/levittown/
Hamilton, W., Levine, M., & Simon, E. (1963). Atmospheric Iodine Abates Smog Ozone.
Science, 140(3563), 190-191. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.rlib.pace.edu/stable/1710984
Islamabad, N. A. (2017, November 17). ‘Maybe the smog can bring us together’: toxic air chokes
Pakistan and India. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/nov/17/maybe-the-smog-can-bring-us-together-toxic-air-chokes-pakistan-and-india
Makinen, J. (2014, September 10). China’s battle plans in war on air pollution under
scrutiny. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-china-la-smog-policy-20140909-story.html
Radio Newsroom , M., & Shaffer, C. (n.d.). Detroit air pollution disproportionately affects
African-American children. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://michiganradio.org/post/detroit-air-pollution-disproportionately-affects-african-american-children
Whitehead, D. (1979). Iodine in the U.K. Environment with Particular Reference to Agriculture.
Journal of Applied Ecology,16(1), 269-279. doi:10.2307/2402746